• Government of Tanzania (GoT)

The below resources are considered useful for the Government of Tanzania (GoT).  Where available, tools are also provided in Swahili.

Overview of stunting reduction toolkit

This document provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the toolkit. 

Toolkit overview



This document provides a complete list of acronyms that you'll find in the toolkit resources.

Toolkit acronyms


How ASTUTE uses innovative behaviour change approaches to improve community nutrition practices in Tanzania

This document—developed at the inception of the ASTUTE programme—outlines ASTUTE’s overall strategies at the national, regional, LGA, and community levels to make it innovative, unique, and effective. This document includes a short description of the tools presented in this kit, designed to improve the uptake of behaviours known to reduce stunting and improve maternal nutrition.

ASTUTE's approach to SBC


Personalised support groups for action

A number of implementing partners - including the Government, international NGOs, and CSOs - use support groups regularly. However, when done poorly, they are often simply vehicles for sharing messages. In Tanzania, support groups may fail to respond to the needs of the community and are not tailored to group members. They are often used to tell group members what they “have to do,” and don’t commit support group members to adopting healthy practices. As part of the ASTUTE project, PANITA worked with 50 CSOs to strengthen their capacity in the management of support groups. In Geita region and elsewhere, PANITA piloted the use of Personalised Support Groups for Action. This document outlines the steps to conducting personalised support groups for action—including “teach back” and commitment.

How to conduct personalised support groups for action

Kutumia vikundi vya kusaidiana kwa kulenga mshiriki mmoja mmoja ili kuboresha utendaji tabia sahihi kiafya


How evidence transformed the design of SBC strategies in Tanzania

Social and Behaviour Change (SBC) programmes are most successful when they marry a thorough understanding of local context with a knowledge of the epidemiology of poor health as well as state-of-the-art programmes that have improved nutrition both inside and outside of Tanzania. This brief describes the evidence-based approach ASTUTE used to design its programmes.  

TO UPLOADHow evidence transformed the design of SBC strategies in Tanzania


Mass media

Here you will find a tool developed by Development Media International (DMI) that provides guidelines on developing a mass media campaign:

TO UPLOAD: Mass media campaign strategy Miongozo ya kuendesha kampeni za kuleta mabadiliko ya tabia kwenye jamii kupitia vyombo vya habari (SBCC)

Here you will find a sample of radio spots DMI created for ASTUTE. Radio spots are aired over two-week time periods across much of northwestern Tanzania and the Southern Highlands. They are played on average 10 times a day.

Example CF radio spot text - English

Example CF radio spot text - Swahili

Example CF radio spot - Swahili mp3

Example ECD radio spot text - English

Example ECD radio spot text - Swahili

Example ECD radio spot - Swahili mp3

Example investment radio spot: 


Example plkipiki radio spot:


You will also find a sample of TV spots DMI developed to reach ASTUTE’s target population, which increasingly uses TV as a form of entertainment and news.

Example fish TV spot:


Example chicken TV spot:


Example tree TV spot:


Example fence TV spot



Positive Deviance/Hearth

Positive Deviance/Hearth (PDH) is an assets-based strategy for improving nutrition and related behaviours. It requires community mobilisation and includes 1) identifying positive deviants (at-risk, poverty-stricken families) whose children are well-nourished 2) learning from them 3) encouraging parents of underweight children to adopt the same practices using hearth sessions, and 4) following up with families in their homes to make sure that they are able to maintain the positive deviant practices they learned about during hearth sessions. This document shares lessons learnt and recommendations for the government and others who implement PDH.

PDH for stunting reduction

These are the state-of-the-art training manuals and handouts developed by World Vision, to be used with PDH programs globally:

For facilitators For master trainers For volunteers

PDH facilitators training manual

PDH facilitator handouts

PDH master trainer manual

PDH master trainer handouts

PDH volunteer manual

PDH volunteer handouts

PDH volunteer job aids


CHWs and home visits

This document is a job description for CHW supervisors. In initial trainings for CHWs and their supervisors, these roles and responsibilities should be spelled out first so that supervisors understand how their day-to-day activities align with their overall roles and responsibilities.

CHW supervisor job description Fomu ya maelezo ya kazi na majukumu ya wasimamizi wa wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya jamii (waja) 

This document summarizes CHWs’ roles and responsibilities. In initial trainings for CHWs, these roles and responsibilities should be spelled out first so that CHWs understand how their day-to-day activities align with Management their overall roles and responsibilities.

CHW roles and responsibilities Majukumu na wajibu wa wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya jamii (waja)

This document is a checklist CHW supervisors can use to ensure that CHWs are implementing high quality home visits.

Home visit checklist for CHW supervisors Kitendea kazi na. 4.1-4.5 orodha ya ufuatiliaji mambo muhimu kwa wasimamizi wa waja, wafanyakazi wa azaki wa ngazi ya jamii na wafanyakazi wengine wa kujitolea wakati wa kutembelea kaya kufanya majadiliano kwa ajili ya mabadiliko ya tabia 

The training guides use findings from ASTUTE’s Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs). By following the steps in this guide, CHW supervisors can help CHWs discuss (step 5 of negotiation) and recommend (step 6) practices people can try to improve the nutrition of their children. These new, detailed messages on exclusive breastfeeding are based on extensive research in multiple settings within the Lake zone of Tanzania and can help CHWs help families overcome challenges such as babies crying a lot and mothers struggling to breastfeed exclusively. This training guide is on exclusive breastfeeding.

CHW training dialogues on exclusive breastfeeding Mazungumzo kuhusu mafunzo kwa wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya jamii (waja) kwa unasihi kuhimiza maziwa ya mama pekee

This training guide is similar to the training dialogue for exclusive breastfeeding but it focuses on complementary feeding and includes lessons on giving children a variety of foods to eat, encouraging children to eat (responsive feeding), and giving healthy snacks.

CHW training dialogues on complementary feeding Mazungumzo kuhusu mafunzo kwa wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya jamii (waja) kwa unasihi kuhimiza chakula cha nyongeza

This toolkit includes a number of resources that when used properly will improve health behaviours known to positively impact maternal and child nutrition. As part of ASTUTE, Community Health Workers (CHWs) conduct home visits using a proven strategy known as negotiating for behaviour change. Details of this strategy can be found in the USAID-funded manual Make Me a Change Agent (included here for easy reference; see lesson 3 of the manual). One reason for ASTUTE’s success is a focus on small, do-able actions (SDAs). SDAs are behaviours that CHWs (and CSO volunteers) promote and that household members can easily try because the practices themselves are not complex. When considered collectively, SDAs add up to large changes in health behaviours and outcomes.

Promoting SDAs

Matendo madogo ambayo wafanyakazi wa azaki na wahudumu wa afya ngazi ya jamii wanaweza kupenedekeza kwa wanakikundi kufanya kwenye familia zao kwa ajili ya kubadili tabia

This is a USAID-funded manual for front-line health workers that provides training curricula for many SBC activities, including negotiated behaviour change. Make Me a Change Agent manuals are also available for agriculture and WASH. Lesson 3 contains information about negotiated behaviour change.

Make Me a Change Agent


CSO volunteers

This document summarizes roles and responsibilities for CSO volunteers. In initial trainings for CSO volunteers, these roles and responsibilities should be spelled out first so that volunteers understand how their day-to-day activities align with overall roles and responsibilities.

CSO volunteer job description Wajibu na majukumu ya mfanyakazi wa azaki ngazi ya jamii 


Strengthening government capacity

District Nutrition Officers (DNuOs) are a key component of the Government of Tanzania’s efforts to improve nutrition. In addition to DNuOs, ASTUTE’s organisational structure also includes CHW supervisors who are able to more efficiently supervise CHWs, given their larger numbers. Under ASTUTE, DNuOs meet monthly with all CHW supervisors and in turn, CHW supervisors meet on a monthly basis with CHWs. This document contains guidance for the DNuO on what he or she should discuss with CHW supervisors during the meeting including classroom-based and community-based skills building in negotiation.

DNuO guide to monthly meetings with CHW supervisors Mwongozo wa waratibu wa lishe kwa ajili ya mikutano ya kila mwezi na wasimamizi wa waja

Monthly meetings are the primary means of strengthening CHW capacity in behaviour change. This document contains guidance for the CHW supervisor on what he or she should discuss with CHWs during their meetings, including classroom and community-based skills building in negotiation. The guidance includes topics that must be discussed every month as well as subjects that can be discussed less frequently.

CHW supervisors' guide to monthly meetings with CHWs Mwongozo wa wasimamizi wa waja kwa ajili ya mikutano ya kila mwezi na waja


Operations research

This document lists operations research presentations, publications, manuals, and other documents Cornell University produced under the ASTUTE project. It also lists presentations and publications produced as part of a joint collaboration between ASTUTE and Brigham Young University. Many of these papers and presentations used ASTUTE’s baseline and mid-line data.

Operations research to improve programmes

This document describes the operations research designed and conducted by Cornell University, in collaboration with IMA World Health and the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC), to strengthen ASTUTE intervention efforts through exploration of attitudes and conditions around infant and young child feeding (IYCF) behaviours and local capacity to deliver quality and effective interventions. 

Operations research update


Fixed obligation grants for government accountability

Fixed obligation grants (FOGs) are used to support specific development activities where both the grant donor and recipient understand the costs required to meet certain deliverables and carry out specific activities. IMA provides FOGs to regional and district government to enable the government to plan its nutrition activities and practise allocating these funds. Using FOGs promotes ownership and buy-in from the government at all levels and increases the likelihood that the government will own and sustain stunting reduction activities following the project’s end. This document describes strategies ASTUTE has used to successfully implement FOGs, as well as lessons learnt and recommendations.

Fixed obligation grants for government accountability Kutumia ruzuku wajibifu kuinua dhamira ya serikali na matokeo chanya katika kutanzua udumavu

This template provides an easy-to-follow approach to monitor FOGs, by milestone. It also allows for comment on progress for each deliverable. 

FOG deliverables checklist

Mapitio ya kukamilika matokeo tarajiwa ya utekelezaji: orodha ya ufuatiliaji mambo muhimu kwa ruzuku wajibu kwa ngazi za wilaya na mikoa

This is an easy-to-use form that LGA government authorities use to report on their activities on a regular basis. This report replaces the need for lengthy narratives and increases the chance that LGAs will complete the forms in a timely fashion.

Performance report template

Fomu ya taarifa ya ufanisi wa kiutendaji

This document contains guidance on how to write a field-based success story as part of a communications package.

Success story template

Fomu ya kukusanya simulizi za mafanikio

This document provides an example of what a FOG agreement might look like: 

Example FOG agreement

This document provides 1) a rationale for more fully including the disabled in nutrition programmes 2) a summary of what Tanzanian law says about working with disabled populations 3) guidance for programme implementers, and 4) links to additional resources.

Accounting for disabilities in stunting programmes

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